The Somali Plate is a minor tectonic plate which straddles the Equator in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is approximately centered on the island of Madagascar and includes about half of the east coast of Africa, from the Gulf of Aden in the north through the East African Rift Valley.
What tectonic plate is Madagascar on?
The Madagascar islands sit across two tectonic plates: the Somali plate to the north and the Lwandle microplate to the south.
What is the type of plate boundary that occurs between the African plate and the Arabian plate?
The Arabian Plate is rifting away from the African plate along an active divergent ridge system, to form the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
What type of boundary is East Africa?
The East African Rift Valley (EAR) is a developing divergent plate boundary in East Africa. Here the eastern portion of Africa, the Somalian plate, is pulling away from the rest of the continent, that comprises the Nubian plate.
How did Madagascar separate from Africa?
Scientific evidence suggests that Madagascar originated from a severe earthquake that separated it from Africa about 200 million years ago. This separation from continental mainland caused the island to drift 250 miles northeast and settled for about 35-45 million years.
Did Madagascar break off India?
India eventually smashed into Asia — forming the Himalayas in the process — but Madagascar broke away from India and was marooned in the Indian Ocean. Madagascar has been on its own for the past 88 million years.
Why did Madagascar split from India?
India was still a part of the supercontinent called Gondwana some 140 million years ago. The Gondwana was composed of modern South America, Africa, Antarctica, and Australia. When this supercontinent split up, a tectonic plate composed of India and modern Madagascar started to drift away.
What type of boundary is the African plate?
Boundaries. The western edge of the African Plate is a divergent boundary with the North American Plate to the north and the South American Plate to the south which forms the central and southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
What type of boundary is the Arabian plate and Eurasian plate?
The Zagros and Makran Mountains in Iran and the Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey are, respectively, the eastern and northern boundaries of the Arabian Plate, which are classified as convergent plate boundaries that represent the zone of collision between the Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.
What type of boundary is the Eurasian plate?
The Eurasian Plate is the third largest major plate. It consists of most of Europe, Russia, and parts of Asia. This plate is sandwiched between the North American and African Plate on the north and west sides. The west side shares a divergent plate boundary with the North American plate.
Is the East Pacific Rise a divergent boundary?
The East Pacific Rise is a “divergent” plate boundary, where huge slabs of the Earth’s crust (plates) are moving away from each other.
What do divergent boundaries create?
A divergent boundary occurs when two tectonic plates move away from each other. Along these boundaries, earthquakes are common and magma (molten rock) rises from the Earth’s mantle to the surface, solidifying to create new oceanic crust.
How fast is Africa splitting apart?
The three plates are separating at different speeds. The Arabian plate is moving away from Africa at a rate of about 1 inch per year, while the two African plates are separating even slower, between half an inch to 0.2 inches per year, according to Macdonald.
Why does Madagascar have so many animals?
Because of Madagascar’s geographic isolation, many groups of plants and animals are entirely absent from the island. … Their descendants underwent dwarfing and evolved into species unique to the island. This distinctive biodiversity is a result of Madagascar’s geographic isolation.
Did lemurs evolve before or after monkeys?
Instead, they merely resemble ancestral primates. Lemurs are thought to have evolved during the Eocene or earlier, sharing a closest common ancestor with lorises, pottos, and galagos (lorisoids).
Why is the east coast of Madagascar so straight?
The blast of heat is thought to have cracked the overriding continent into two parts, Madagascar and India, which scraped past the east coast of Madagascar on its way north toward Asia, leaving a very straight coastline there.