Belgium created two colonies in Africa: the entities now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly the Republic of Zaire) and the Republic of Rwanda, previously Ruanda-Urundi, a former German African colony that was given to Belgium to administer after the defeat of Germany in World War I.
Why did Belgium colonize Africa?
Belgium is a small country in northwest Europe that joined Europe’s race for colonies in the late 19th century. Many European countries wanted to colonize distant parts of the world in order to exploit the resources and “civilize” the inhabitants of these less-developed countries. Belgium gained independence in 1830.
Where in Africa did Belgium dominate?
The Belgian Congo (French: Congo belge, pronounced [kɔ̃ɡo bɛlʒ]; Dutch: Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960. The former colony adopted its present name, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in 1964. Colonial rule in the Congo began in the late 19th century.
How did Belgium colonize the Congo?
Belgium was the obvious European candidate to run the Congo. For two years, it debated the question and held new elections on the issue. Yielding to international pressure, the parliament of Belgium annexed the Congo Free State and took over its administration on November 15, 1908, as the colony of the Belgian Congo.
What did Belgium do in the Congo?
Belgium then administered the Congo as a colony until independence in 1960. Unlike other early twentieth-century colonial powers in Africa, Belgium did not directly oversee the education of the Congo’s indigenous population. Rather, it turned the responsibility for education over to missionaries.
How many countries did Belgium colonize?
Belgium controlled 3 colonies and 3 concessions during its history, the Belgian Congo (modern DRC) from 1908 to 1960, and Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi) from 1922 to 1962. It also had a small concession in China and was a co-administrator of the Tangier International Zone in Morocco.
Who colonized the Congo?
Belgian colonization of DR Congo began in 1885 when King Leopold II founded and ruled the Congo Free State. However, de facto control of such a huge area took decades to achieve.
How much money did Belgium make from the Congo?
Leopold used the rubber money to develop Belgium. “Leopold drew some 220 million francs (or $1.1 billion in today’s dollars) in profits from the Congo during his lifetime.
Why did colonization of Africa begin in the Congo?
Why did colonization of Africa begin in the Congo? … This upset most Africans because they felt that just because they were not as progressive in the fields of science and technology that didn’t mean that they were a lower scale of humans as far as cultural and physical development.
What was Congo called before?
A constitutional referendum the year before Mobutu’s coup of 1965 resulted in the country’s official name being changed to the “Democratic Republic of the Congo.” In 1971 Mobutu changed the name again, this time to “Republic of Zaire”.
How many did Belgium kill in Congo?
Although Leopold II established Belgium as a colonial power in Africa, he is best known for the widespread atrocities that were carried out under his rule, as a result of which as many as 10 million people died in the Congo Free State.
What caused the war in Congo?
The most deciding event in precipitating the war was the genocide in neighbouring Rwanda in 1994, which sparked a mass exodus of refugees known as the Great Lakes refugee crisis. During the 100-day genocide, hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and sympathizers were massacred at the hands of predominantly Hutu aggressors.
Why were hands cut off in the Congo?
Disease, famine and violence combined to reduce the birth-rate while excess deaths rose. The severing of workers’ hands achieved particular international notoriety. These were sometimes cut off by Force Publique soldiers who were made to account for every shot they fired by bringing back the hands of their victims.
When was the Belgian Congo genocide?
From 1885 to 1908, loot flowed endlessly from the dark interior of the jungle, up the river Congo and into colonial Belgium. Estimates of deaths in that period range from 10 million to 15 million Africans, and the debate whether it constituted a genocide continues.